Psychometric Evaluation of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test (FIRST) in Early Pregnancy

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J Clin Sleep Med


STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the construct validity and factor structure of the Spanish-language version of the Ford Insomnia Response to Stress Test questionnaire (FIRST-S) when used in early pregnancy.

METHODS: A cohort of 647 women were interviewed at ≤ 16 weeks of gestation to collect information regarding lifestyle, demographic, and sleep characteristics. The factorial structure of the FIRST-S was tested through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (EFA and CFA). Internal consistency and construct validity were also assessed by evaluating the association between the FIRST-S with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted to complement classical test theory (CTT) analytic approaches.

RESULTS: The mean score of the FIRST-S was 13.8 (range: 9-33). The results of the EFA showed that the FIRST-S contained a one-factor solution that accounted for 69.8% of the variance. The FIRST-S items showed good internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.81). CFA results corroborated the one-factor structure finding from the EFA; and yielded measures indicating goodness of fit (comparative fit index of 0.902) and accuracy (root mean square error of approximation of 0.057). The FIRST-S had good construct validity as demonstrated by statistically significant associations of FIRST-S scores with sleep quality, antepartum depression and anxiety symptoms. Finally, results from IRT analyses suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures.

CONCLUSIONS: The FIRST-S was found to have good construct validity and internal consistency for assessing vulnerability to insomnia during early pregnancy.

Medical Subject Headings

Adolescent; Adult; Factor Analysis, Statistical; Female; Humans; Peru; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications; Pregnancy Trimester, First; Psychometrics; Reproducibility of Results; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Stress, Psychological; Surveys and Questionnaires; Translating; Young Adult

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