Perioperative Ketorolac Use: A Potential Risk Factor for Renal Dysfunction After Live-Donor Nephrectomy
Takahashi K, Patel AK, Nagai S, Safwan M, Putchakayala KG, Kane WJ, Malinzak LE, Denny JE, Yoshida A, and Kim DY. Perioperative ketorolac use: A potential risk factor for renal dysfunction after live-donor nephrectomy. Ann Transplant 2017; 22:563-569.
Annals of Transplantation
BACKGROUND Ketorolac is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for pain control after surgeries in many fields. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ketorolac use after live-donor nephrectomy (LDN). MATERIAL AND METHODS We reviewed data on 251 patients who underwent laparoscopic LDN from April 2008 to March 2016. Ketorolac was given to 167 patients intraoperatively or postoperatively within 24 h after LDN. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) percentage was defined as postoperative GFR/preoperative GFR. GFR and GFR percentage at 2 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year after LDN were compared between patients with and without ketorolac administration. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors for low GFR percentage 1 year after LDN. RESULTS GFR at 1 year was significantly lower in patients who received ketorolac than in those who did not (62 ml/min/1.73 m² vs. 73 ml/min/1.73 m², P<0.01). The differences in GFR and GFR percentage between 2 weeks and 1 year after LDN was significantly lower in the ketorolac group (GFR; 3.0 ml/min/1.73 m² vs. 14.0 ml/min/1.73 m², P<0.01; GFR percentage; 2.0% vs. 12.0%, P<0.01). Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio 1 year after LDN was significantly higher in the ketorolac group compared to the non-ketorolac group (8.6 mg/g vs. 12.6 mg/g, P=0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed that ketorolac use was an independent risk factor for low GFR percentage 1 year after LDN (odds ratio 1.38). CONCLUSIONS Ketorolac appears to be a risk factor for renal dysfunction in the long term after LDN. Prospective clinical trials are needed to reassess its safety.
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; Female; Glomerular Filtration Rate; Humans; Ketorolac; Kidney; Kidney Function Tests; Kidney Transplantation; Laparoscopy; Living Donors; Male; Middle Aged; Nephrectomy; Pain, Postoperative; Renal Insufficiency; Risk Factors