Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

J Heart Lung Transplant


Purpose: Cardiac surgery continues to transform into areas of sub-specialization and expertise to reduce variability and have superior outcomes. We sought to analyze the impact of surgical sub-specialization and use of protocol and clinical pathways on outcomes with MCS at the time of LVAD implantation.

Methods: A single center retrospective analysis of long term durable MCS patients between 2004-2019 was performed. The analysis was conducted comparing management of patients before (Era 1: 2004-2011) vs. after (Era 2: 2012-2019) based on before and after introduction of MCS sub-specialization. Since 2012, multiple initiatives were introduced namely recruitment of specialized MCS/transplant surgeons, multidisciplinary team rounds, establishment of a shock team, development of clinical care pathways, electronic medical record order sets and clinical practice guidelines.

Results: A total of 542 patients were included. During Era 1, five cardiac surgeons implanted LVADs in 123 patients, while in Era 2, two MCS/transplant trained surgeons implanted LVADs in 419 patients. Era 2 included higher number of INTERMACS 1 and 2 profile patients (41% vs. 63%) reflecting higher-acuity patient population. With implementation of the sub-specialization services, 1-year survival improved from 70% to 90%. Median ICU stay decreased from 13 to 8 days and percent of patients discharged to home increased from 62% to 95%. Standardized protocols for management of high LDH, GI bleeding, and blood pressure management resulted in significant reduction in overall hospital length of stay. With introduction of clinical care pathways, the average time for workup from admission to LVAD implant decreased from 27.6 days to 8.5 days.

Conclusion: Introduction of surgical sub-specialization and standardization of care with the use of clinical pathways and protocols in managing patients with LVADs can help improve survival, reduce variability in medical care, and reduce ICU length of stay.





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