Pseudogene Associated Recurrent Gene Fusion in Prostate Cancer.
Chakravarthi BV, Dedigama-Arachchige P, Carskadon S, Sundaram SK, Li J, Wu KH, Chandrashekar DS, Peabody JO, Stricker H, Hwang C, Chitale DA, Williamson SR, Gupta NS, Navone NM, Rogers C, Menon M, Varambally S, and Palanisamy N. Pseudogene Associated Recurrent Gene Fusion in Prostate Cancer. Neoplasia 2019; 21(10):989-1002.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
We present the functional characterization of a pseudogene associated recurrent gene fusion in prostate cancer. The fusion gene KLK4-KLKP1 is formed by the fusion of the protein coding gene KLK4 with the noncoding pseudogene KLKP1. Screening of a cohort of 659 patients (380 Caucasian American; 250 African American, and 29 patients from other races) revealed that the KLK4-KLKP1 is expressed in about 32% of prostate cancer patients. Correlative analysis with other ETS gene fusions and SPINK1 revealed a concomitant expression pattern of KLK4-KLKP1 with ERG and a mutually exclusive expression pattern with SPINK1, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Development of an antibody specific to KLK4-KLKP1 fusion protein confirmed the expression of the full-length KLK4-KLKP1 protein in prostate tissues. The in vitro and in vivo functional assays to study the oncogenic properties of KLK4-KLKP1 confirmed its role in cell proliferation, cell invasion, intravasation, and tumor formation. Presence of strong ERG and AR binding sites located at the fusion junction in KLK4-KLKP1 suggests that the fusion gene is regulated by ERG and AR. Correlative analysis of clinical data showed an association of KLK4-KLKP1 with lower preoperative PSA values and in young men (years) with prostate cancer. Screening of patient urine samples showed that KLK4-KLKP1 can be detected noninvasively in urine. Taken together, we present KLK4-KLKP1 as a class of pseudogene associated fusion transcript in cancer with potential applications as a biomarker for routine screening of prostate cancer.