Performance of a Prostate Cancer Genomic Classifier in Predicting Metastasis in Men with Prostate-specific Antigen Persistence Postprostatectomy.

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European urology


BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer patients who have a detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) postprostatectomy may harbor pre-existing metastatic disease. To our knowledge, none of the commercially available genomic biomarkers have been investigated in such men.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if a 22-gene genomic classifier can independently predict development of metastasis in men with PSA persistence postoperatively.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A multi-institutional study of 477 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1990 and 2015 from three academic centers. Patients were categorized as detectable PSA (n=150) or undetectable (n=327) based on post-RP PSA nadir ≥0.1 ng/ml.

OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISITICAL ANALYSIS: Cumulative incidence curves for metastasis were constructed using Fine-Gray competing risks analysis. Penalized Cox univariable and multivariable (MVA) proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate the association of the genomic classifier with metastasis.

RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: The median follow-up for censored patients was 57 mo. The median time from RP to first postoperative PSA was 1.4 mo. Detectable PSA patients were more likely to have higher adverse pathologic features compared with undetectable PSA patients. On MVA, only genomic high-risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 5.95, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.02-19.41, p=0.001), detectable PSA (HR: 4.26, 95% CI: 1.16-21.8, p=0.03), and lymph node invasion (HR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.46-70.7, p=0.003) remained prognostic factors for metastasis. Among detectable PSA patients, the 5-yr metastasis rate was 0.90% for genomic low/intermediate and 18% for genomic high risk (p<0.001). Genomic high risk remained independently prognostic on MVA (HR: 5.61, 95% CI: 1.48-22.7, p=0.01) among detectable PSA patients. C-index for Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical score, Gandaglia nomogram, and the genomic classifier plus either Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Postsurgical score or Gandaglia were 0.69, 0.68, and 0.82 or 0.81, respectively. Sample size was a limitation.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite patients with a detectable PSA harboring significantly higher rates of aggressive clinicopathologic features, Decipher independently predicts for metastasis. Prospective validation of these findings is warranted and will be collected as part of the ongoing randomized trial NRG GU-002.

PATIENT SUMMARY: Decipher independently predicted metastasis for patients with detectable prostate-specific antigen after prostatectomy.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Biomarkers, Tumor; Genome; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Neoplasm Metastasis; Predictive Value of Tests; Prognosis; Prostate-Specific Antigen; Prostatectomy; Prostatic Neoplasms; Risk Assessment

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