Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases


BACKGROUND: Preoperative PSA, ISUP grade group (GG), prostate examination and multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) form the basis of prostate cancer staging. Unlike other solid organ tumours, tumour volume (TV) is not routinely used aside from crude estimates such as maximum cancer core length. The aim of this study is to assess the role of TV as a marker for oncological outcomes in high-risk non-metastatic prostate cancer.

METHODS: A prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic) radical prostatectomy at a UK centre between 2007 and 2019 were analysed. A total of 251 patients with NCCN high or very high-risk prostate cancer were identified. Primary outcome measure was time to biochemical recurrence (BCR) and the secondary outcome was time to treatment failure (TTF). TV was measured on the pathological specimen using the stacking method. Multivariable cox regression analysis was used to identify factors predicting BCR and TFF. TV as a predictor of BCR and TFF was further analysed through time-dependent receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were used to evaluate TV cut-off scores.

RESULTS: Median follow up was 4.50 years. Four factors were associated with BCR and TFF on multivariable analysis (TV, pathological GG, pathological T stage, positive margin >3 mm). Area under the Curve (AUC) for TV as a predictor of BCR and TTF at 5 years was 0.71 and 0.75, respectively. Including all 4 variables in the model increased AUC to 0.84 and 0.85 for BCR and TFF. A 2.50 cm TV cut off demonstrated a significance difference in time to BCR, p < 0.001.

CONCLUSIONS: Pathological tumour volume is an independent predictor of oncological outcomes in high risk prostate cancer but does not add significant prognostic value when combined with established variables. However, the option of accurate TV measurement on mpMRI raises the possibility of using TV as useful marker for preoperative risk stratification.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.