Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Annals of surgical oncology


BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the addition of anti-androgen therapy (AAT) to late salvage radiation therapy (sRT) can lead to oncological outcomes equivalent to that of early sRT in men with recurrent prostate cancer (CaP) after surgery.

METHODS: Data on 670 men who participated in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-9601 trial and who experienced biochemical recurrence were extracted using the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) data archive platform. Patients were stratified into four treatment groups: early sRT (pre-sRT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] < 0.7 ng/mL) and late sRT (pre-sRT PSA ≥ 0.7 ng/mL) with/without concomitant AAT, based on cut-offs reported in the original trial. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing-risk regression analyses assessed the adjusted hazards of overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis among the four treatment groups.

RESULTS: At 15-years (median follow-up of 14.7 years), for patients treated with early sRT, early sRT with AAT, late sRT, and late sRT with AAT, the overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis rates were 22.9, 22.8, 40.1, and 22.9% (log-rank p = 0.0039), 12.1, 3.9, 22.7, and 8.0% (Gray's p = 0.0004), and 18.8, 14.6, 35.9, and 19.5% (Gray's p = 0.0004), respectively. Time-varying multivariable adjusted analysis demonstrated increased hazards of overall mortality in patients receiving delayed sRT versus early sRT (hazards ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17); however, no difference remained after the addition of concomitant AAT to late sRT (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55-1.32, referent early sRT). Likewise, the hazards of cancer-specific mortality and metastatic progression were worse for late sRT when compared with early sRT, but were no different after the addition of AAT to late sRT.

CONCLUSIONS: Poorer outcomes associated with late sRT in men with recurrent CaP may be rescued by delivery of concomitant AAT.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.