Anti-Androgen Therapy Overcomes the Time Delay in Initiation of Salvage Radiation Therapy and Rescues the Oncological Outcomes in Men with Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: A Post Hoc Analysis of the RTOG-9601 Trial Data
Sood A, Keeley J, Palma-Zamora I, Chien M, Corsi N, Jeong W, Rogers CG, Trinh QD, Peabody JO, Menon M, and Abdollah F. Anti-Androgen Therapy Overcomes the Time Delay in Initiation of Salvage Radiation Therapy and Rescues the Oncological Outcomes in Men with Recurrent Prostate Cancer After Radical Prostatectomy: A Post Hoc Analysis of the RTOG-9601 Trial Data. Ann Surg Oncol 2022:1-10.
Annals of surgical oncology
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the addition of anti-androgen therapy (AAT) to late salvage radiation therapy (sRT) can lead to oncological outcomes equivalent to that of early sRT in men with recurrent prostate cancer (CaP) after surgery.
METHODS: Data on 670 men who participated in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-9601 trial and who experienced biochemical recurrence were extracted using the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) data archive platform. Patients were stratified into four treatment groups: early sRT (pre-sRT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] < 0.7 ng/mL) and late sRT (pre-sRT PSA ≥ 0.7 ng/mL) with/without concomitant AAT, based on cut-offs reported in the original trial. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing-risk regression analyses assessed the adjusted hazards of overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis among the four treatment groups.
RESULTS: At 15-years (median follow-up of 14.7 years), for patients treated with early sRT, early sRT with AAT, late sRT, and late sRT with AAT, the overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis rates were 22.9, 22.8, 40.1, and 22.9% (log-rank p = 0.0039), 12.1, 3.9, 22.7, and 8.0% (Gray's p = 0.0004), and 18.8, 14.6, 35.9, and 19.5% (Gray's p = 0.0004), respectively. Time-varying multivariable adjusted analysis demonstrated increased hazards of overall mortality in patients receiving delayed sRT versus early sRT (hazards ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17); however, no difference remained after the addition of concomitant AAT to late sRT (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55-1.32, referent early sRT). Likewise, the hazards of cancer-specific mortality and metastatic progression were worse for late sRT when compared with early sRT, but were no different after the addition of AAT to late sRT.
CONCLUSIONS: Poorer outcomes associated with late sRT in men with recurrent CaP may be rescued by delivery of concomitant AAT.
ePub ahead of print