Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-24-2022

Publication Title

Annals of surgical oncology

Abstract

BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the addition of anti-androgen therapy (AAT) to late salvage radiation therapy (sRT) can lead to oncological outcomes equivalent to that of early sRT in men with recurrent prostate cancer (CaP) after surgery.

METHODS: Data on 670 men who participated in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-9601 trial and who experienced biochemical recurrence were extracted using the National Clinical Trials Network (NCTN) data archive platform. Patients were stratified into four treatment groups: early sRT (pre-sRT prostate-specific antigen [PSA] < 0.7 ng/mL) and late sRT (pre-sRT PSA ≥ 0.7 ng/mL) with/without concomitant AAT, based on cut-offs reported in the original trial. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards and Fine-Gray competing-risk regression analyses assessed the adjusted hazards of overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis among the four treatment groups.

RESULTS: At 15-years (median follow-up of 14.7 years), for patients treated with early sRT, early sRT with AAT, late sRT, and late sRT with AAT, the overall mortality, CaP-specific mortality, and metastasis rates were 22.9, 22.8, 40.1, and 22.9% (log-rank p = 0.0039), 12.1, 3.9, 22.7, and 8.0% (Gray's p = 0.0004), and 18.8, 14.6, 35.9, and 19.5% (Gray's p = 0.0004), respectively. Time-varying multivariable adjusted analysis demonstrated increased hazards of overall mortality in patients receiving delayed sRT versus early sRT (hazards ratio [HR] 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.17); however, no difference remained after the addition of concomitant AAT to late sRT (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.55-1.32, referent early sRT). Likewise, the hazards of cancer-specific mortality and metastatic progression were worse for late sRT when compared with early sRT, but were no different after the addition of AAT to late sRT.

CONCLUSIONS: Poorer outcomes associated with late sRT in men with recurrent CaP may be rescued by delivery of concomitant AAT.

PubMed ID

35608801

ePublication

ePub ahead of print

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