Analysis of Complications After Robot-Assisted Radical Cystectomy Between 2002-2021

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OBJECTIVE: To identify trends in complications following robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) using a multi-institutional database, the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC).

METHODS: A retrospective review of the IRCC database was performed (2976 patients, 26 institutions from 11 countries). Postoperative complications were categorized as overall or high grade (≥ Clavien Dindo III) and were further categorized based on type/organ site. Descriptive statistics was used to summarize the data. Multivariate analysis (MVA) was used to identify variables associated with overall and high-grade complications. Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to describe the trend of complications over time.

RESULTS: 1777 (60%) patients developed postoperative complications following RARC, 51% of complications occurred within 30 days of RARC, 19% between 30-90 days, and 30% after 90 days. 835 patients (28%) experienced high-grade complications. Infectious complications (25%) were the most prevalent, while bleeding (1%) was the least. The incidence of complications was stable between 2002-2021. Gastrointestinal and neurologic postoperative complications increased significantly (P < .01, for both) between 2005 and 2020 while thromboembolic (P = .03) and wound complications (P < .01) decreased. On MVA, BMI (OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.01-1.05, P < .01), prior abdominal surgery (OR 1.26, 95%CI 1.03-1.56, P = .03), receipt of neobladder (OR 1.52, 95%CI 1.17-1.99, P < .01), positive nodal disease (OR 1.33, 95%CI 1.05-1.70, P = .02), length of inpatient stay (OR 1.04, 95%CI 1.02-1.05, P < .01) and ICU admission (OR 1.67, 95%CI 1.36-2.06, P < .01) were associated with high-grade complications.

CONCLUSION: Overall and high-grade complications after RARC remained stable between 2002-2021. GI and neurologic complications increased, while thromboembolic and wound complications decreased.

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ePub ahead of print