Does Varicocele Repair Improve Conventional Semen Parameters? A Meta-Analytic Study of Before-After Data
Cannarella R, Shah R, Hamoda TAA, Boitrelle F, Saleh R, Gul M, Rambhatla A, Kavoussi P, Toprak T, Harraz AM, Ko E, Çeker G, Durairajanayagam D, Alkahidi N, Kuroda S, Crafa A, Henkel R, Salvio G, Hazir B, Darbandi M, Bendayan M, Darbandi S, Falcone M, Garrido N, Kosgi R, Sawaid Kaiyal R, Karna K, Phuoc NHV, Birowo P, Colpi GM, de la Rosette J, Pinggera GM, Nguyen Q, Zini A, Zohdy W, Singh R, Saini P, Glina S, Lin H, Mostafa T, Rojas-Cruz C, Arafa M, Calogero AE, Dimitriadis F, Kothari P, Karthikeyan VS, Okada K, Chiba K, Kadıoglu A, Altay B, Turunc T, Zilaitiene B, Gokalp F, Adamyan A, Katz D, Chung E, Mierzwa TC, Zylbersztejn DS, Paul GM, Sofikitis N, Sokolakis I, Malhotra V, Brodjonegoro SR, Adriansjah R, Tsujimura A, Amano T, Balercia G, Ziouziou I, Deswanto IA, Martinez M, Park HJ, Bakırcıoglu ME, Ceyhan E, Aydos K, Ramsay J, Minhas S, Hashimi MA, Ghayda RA, Tadros N, Sindhwani P, Ho CCK, Rachman RI, Rodriguez Pena M, Motawi A, Ponnusamy AK, Dipankar S, Amir A, Binsaleh S, Serefoglu EC, Banthia R, Khalafalla K, Basukarno A, Bac NH, Singla K, Ambar RF, Makarounis K, Priyadarshi S, Duarsa GWK, Atmoko W, Jindal S, Arianto E, Akhavizadegan H, El Bardisi H, Shoshany O, Busetto GM, Moussa M, Jamali M, Al-Marhoon MS, Ruzaev M, Farsi HMA, Mutambirwa S, Lee DS, Kulaksiz D, Cheng YS, Bouzouita A, Sarikaya S, Kandil H, Tsampoukas G, Farkouh A, Bowa K, Savira M, Mogharabian N, Le TV, Harjanggi M, Anh DT, Long TQT, Soebadi MA, Hakim L, Tanic M, Ari UC, Parikh FR, Calik G, Kv V, Dorji G, Rezano A, Rajmil O, Tien DMB, Yuan Y, Lizarraga-Salas JF, Eze B, Ngoo KS, Lee J, Arslan U, and Agarwal A. Does Varicocele Repair Improve Conventional Semen Parameters? A Meta-Analytic Study of Before-After Data. World J Mens Health 2023.
World J Mens Health
PURPOSE: The purpose of this meta-analysis is to study the impact of varicocele repair in the largest cohort of infertile males with clinical varicocele by including all available studies, with no language restrictions, comparing intra-person conventional semen parameters before and after the repair of varicoceles.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The meta-analysis was performed according to PRISMA-P and MOOSE guidelines. A systematic search was performed in Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases. Eligible studies were selected according to the PICOS model (Population: infertile male patients with clinical varicocele; Intervention: varicocele repair; Comparison: intra-person before-after varicocele repair; Outcome: conventional semen parameters; Study type: randomized controlled trials [RCTs], observational and case-control studies).
RESULTS: Out of 1,632 screened abstracts, 351 articles (23 RCTs, 292 observational, and 36 case-control studies) were included in the quantitative analysis. The before-and-after analysis showed significant improvements in all semen parameters after varicocele repair (except sperm vitality); semen volume: standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.203, 95% CI: 0.129-0.278; p<0.001; I²=83.62%, Egger's p=0.3329; sperm concentration: SMD 1.590, 95% CI: 1.474-1.706; p<0.001; I²=97.86%, Egger's p<0.0001; total sperm count: SMD 1.824, 95% CI: 1.526-2.121; p<0.001; I²=97.88%, Egger's p=0.0063; total motile sperm count: SMD 1.643, 95% CI: 1.318-1.968; p<0.001; I²=98.65%, Egger's p=0.0003; progressive sperm motility: SMD 1.845, 95% CI: 1.537%-2.153%; p<0.001; I²=98.97%, Egger's p<0.0001; total sperm motility: SMD 1.613, 95% CI 1.467%-1.759%; p<0.001; l2=97.98%, Egger's p<0.001; sperm morphology: SMD 1.066, 95% CI 0.992%-1.211%; p<0.001; I²=97.87%, Egger's p=0.1864.
CONCLUSIONS: The current meta-analysis is the largest to date using paired analysis on varicocele patients. In the current meta-analysis, almost all conventional semen parameters improved significantly following varicocele repair in infertile patients with clinical varicocele.
ePub ahead of print