Racial disparity in quality of care and overall survival among black vs. white patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with radical cystectomy: A national cancer database analysis.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Urologic oncology


OBJECTIVES: To examine the impact of race on quality of care and overall survival (OS) among patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with radical cystectomy (RC) in the U.S.

MATERIALS & METHODS: Our cohort consisted of 12,652 patients receiving RC for MIBC within the National Cancer Database from 2004 to 2012. Patients were stratified by race (Black non-Hispanic vs. White non-Hispanic) and imbalances in patient characteristics mitigated using propensity score weighting. Logistic and Cox regressions examined the impact of race on quality of care metrics (receipt of pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), lymph node count, hospital volume, length of stay, delay of treatment) and on OS. The difference in OS was expressed as Delta, and stratified by facility-type, hospital volume, and region.

RESULTS: Blacks were less likely to receive PLND (odds ratio [OR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.91), or to have a greater number of lymph nodes removed (OR 0.76, 95%CI: 0.64-0.90). They exhibited greater length of stay (OR 1.34, 95%CI: 1.13-1.59), and delay of RC among recipients of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (OR 2.59, 95%CI: 1.77-3.85) (all P ≤ 0.001). Notably, utilization of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced disease stages was more common in blacks (OR 2.82, 95%CI: 1.93-4.13, P < 0.001). Additionally, Black race was associated with inferior OS (Hazard ratio 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.97, P < 0.014). Disparities in OS varied based on facility type and geographical region, but not hospital volume. Specifically, Blacks had worse OS when treated in a community cancer program (Delta 0.42, 95%CI: 0.28-0.57,P < 0.001), or within New England/Middle Atlantic region (Delta 0.16, 95% CI: 0.07-0.24,P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: Black race is an independent predictor of inferior quality of care and OS in patients undergoing RC for MIBC. Survival disparities vary based on geographical region and facility type. Notably, the OS disparity appears to have narrowed in comparison to previous studies.

Medical Subject Headings

African Americans; Aged; Carcinoma, Transitional Cell; Cystectomy; Databases, Factual; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Healthcare Disparities; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Urinary Bladder Neoplasms

PubMed ID






First Page


Last Page