The 5-item frailty index predicts 30-day morbidity and mortality in radical nephrectomy patients: A propensity matched analysis

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Urologic oncology


PURPOSE: To assess the ability of the 5-item frailty index (5-IFi) score to predict 30-day morbidity and mortality post-radical nephrectomy (RN).

METHODS: ACS-NSQIP database was used to select patients who underwent RN from 2011 to 2020. 5-IFi score was calculated by assigning a point for each of the following comorbidities: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or pneumonia, congestive heart failure, dependent functional status, hypertension, and diabetes. Patients were divided into 3 frailty groups 0, 1, and ≥2. Patient demographics, medical comorbidities, prolonged length of stay, and prolonged operative time were compared between different groups; mortality and morbidity using the Clavien-Dindo classification (CVD). Multivariable logistic regression models and propensity score matching were performed as a sensitivity analysis to control for possible confounders.

RESULTS: Cohort consisted of 36,682 patients whereby 5-IFi class 0, 1, and ≥2 included 11,564 (31.5%), 16,571 (45.2%), and 8,547 (25.3%) patients respectively. A multivariable analysis and propensity score matching revealed that patients with 5-IFi classes 1 and ≥ 2 were more likely to have a prolonged length of stay (OR = 1.11, 1.3, respectively) and to mortality (OR = 1.85 for frailty class ≥2); in addition to CVD class 1 & 2 (OR = 1.51, OR = 1.13, respectively), and CVD ≥ 4 (OR = 1.41, 1.86, respectively) as compared to 5-IFi class 0 (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: The 5-IFi score was found to be an independent predictor of prolonged length of stay, morbidity, and mortality after RN. This tool can play a major role in preoperative risk assessment and patient counseling based on individualized risks.

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ePub ahead of print