Virtual Reality: The Future of Invasive Procedure Training?

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Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia


Invasive procedures are associated with adverse events that are both hazardous to patients and expensive to treat. A trainee is expected to perform complex sterile invasive procedures in a dynamic environment under time pressure while maintaining patient safety at the highest standard of care. For mastery in performing an invasive procedure, the automatism of the technical aspects is required, as well as the ability to adapt to patient conditions, anatomic variability, and environmental stressors. Virtual reality (VR) simulation training is an immersive technology with immense potential for medical training, potentially enhancing clinical proficiency and improving patient safety. Virtual reality can project near-realistic environments onto a head-mounted display, allowing users to simulate and interact with various scenarios. Virtual reality has been used extensively for task training in various healthcare-related disciplines and other fields, such as the military. These scenarios often incorporate haptic feedback for the simulation of physical touch and audio and visual stimuli. In this manuscript, the authors have presented a historical review, the current status, and the potential application of VR simulation training for invasive procedures. They specifically explore a VR training module for central venous access as a prototype for invasive procedure training to describe the advantages and limitations of this evolving technology.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print