2-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement in Patients With Annular Calcification, Rings, and Bioprostheses

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Journal of the American College of Cardiology


BACKGROUND: The MITRAL (Mitral Implantation of Transcatheter Valves) trial is the first prospective study for valve-in-mitral annular calcification (ViMAC), mitral valve-in-ring (MViR), and mitral valve-in-valve (MViV) using balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves. Procedural outcomes beyond 1 year are not well described.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated 2-year outcomes in ViMAC, MViR, and MViV in the MITRAL trial.

METHODS: This multicenter prospective study enrolled patients with severe MAC, prior failed mitral annuloplasty ring repair, or prior failed bioprosthetic MV replacement who were at high surgical risk at 13 U.S. sites.

RESULTS: Between February 1, 2015, and December 31, 2017, 91 patients were enrolled (31 with ViMAC, 30 with MViR, and 30 with MViV). In the ViMAC group, 2-year all-cause mortality was 39.3%, 66.7% were New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I-II, and mean MV gradient was 5.6 ± 2.0 mm Hg. In the MViR group, 2-year all-cause mortality was 50%, 65% were NYHA functional class I-II, and mean MV gradient was 6.5 ± 2.7 mm Hg. In the MViV group, 2-year all-cause mortality was 6.7%, 85% were NYHA functional class I-II, and mean MV gradient was 6.9 ± 2.4 mm Hg. At 2 years, all patients had ≤mild mitral regurgitation and survivors in all 3 arms showed sustained improvement in Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire scores compared to baseline.

CONCLUSIONS: Use of balloon-expandable aortic transcatheter heart valves in selected patients with severe MAC, failed annuloplasty ring, and bioprosthetic MV dysfunction is associated with improvements in symptoms, quality of life, and stable prosthesis function at 2-year follow-up. Between 1 and 2 years, the MViR group experienced higher mortality rates than the MViV and ViMAC groups.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Bioprosthesis; Mitral Valve; Prospective Studies; Quality of Life; Calcinosis

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