Validation of the OPEN-CLEAN Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Perforation Score in a Multicenter Registry

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The American journal of cardiology


Coronary artery perforation is one of the most common and feared complications of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We evaluated the utility of the recently presented OPEN-CLEAN (Coronary artery bypass graft, Length of occlusion, Ejection fraction, Age, calcificatioN) perforation score in an independent multicenter CTO PCI dataset. Of the 2,270 patients who underwent CTO PCI at 7 centers, 150 (6.6%) suffered coronary artery perforation. Patients with perforations were older (69 ± 10 vs 65 ± 10, p <0.001), more likely to be women (89% vs 82%, p = 0.010), more likely to have history of previous coronary artery bypass graft (38% vs 20%, p <0.001), and unfavorable angiographic characteristics such as blunt stump (64% vs 42%, p <0.001), proximal cap ambiguity (51% vs 33%, p <0.001), and moderate-severe calcification (57% vs 43%, p = 0.001). Technical success was lower in patients with perforations (69% vs 85%, p <0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the OPEN-CLEAN perforation risk model was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.68 to 0.79), with good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.72). We found that the CTO PCI perforation risk increased with higher OPEN-CLEAN scores: 3.5% (score 0 to 1), 3.1% (score 2), 5.3% (score 3), 7.1% (score 4), 11.5% (score 5), 19.8% (score 6 to 7). In conclusion, given its good performance and ease of preprocedural calculation, the OPEN-CLEAN perforation score appears to be useful for quantifying the perforation risk for patients who underwent CTO PCI.

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Humans; Female; Male; Risk Factors; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Treatment Outcome; Coronary Angiography; Coronary Occlusion; Chronic Disease; Vascular System Injuries; Registries

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