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Interleukin 1 (IL-1) has been indicated as a mediator of recurrent pericarditis. Rilonacept, a soluble IL-1 receptor chimeric fusion protein neutralizing interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), has demonstrated promising results in a phase II study in recurrent or refractory pericarditis. Anakinra is a recombinant inhibitor of the IL-1 receptor with a demonstrated reduction in the incidence of recurrent pericarditis. Definite pharmacological management of pericarditis is key to preventing recurrences, mostly treatment options for recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional drugs. Here we critically discuss the existing therapy options for recurrent pericarditis, with a focus on new pharmacological approaches: rilonacept and anakinra. A systematic search was conducted across online databases such as PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, CINAHL, Scopus, and Embase to obtain clinical trials that assess the effectiveness of anti-interleukin 1 therapy such as anakinra and rilonacept in the management of recurrent pericarditis. Our study concluded that anti-interleukin 1 therapy significantly improved both the quality of life and the clinical outcomes of the study population. These outcomes were most prominent with the use of rilonacept and anakinra in the trial treatment. Rilonacept and anakinra are valuable options in case of recurrent pericarditis refractory to conventional drugs.

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