Racial Differences in Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure Treated With Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis of the CHIEF-HF, DEFINE-HF, and PRESERVED-HF Trials

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BACKGROUND: Health status outcomes, including symptoms, function, and quality of life, are worse for Black compared with White patients with heart failure. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) reduce cardiovascular mortality and improve health status in patients with heart failure, but whether the health status benefit of SGLT2is is similar across races is not established. The objective of this study was to compare the treatment effect of SGLT2is (versus placebo) on health status for Black compared with White patients with heart failure.

METHODS: We combined patient-level data from 3 randomized clinical trials of SGLT2is: DEFINE-HF (Dapagliflozin Effect on Symptoms and Biomarkers in Patients With Heart Failure; n=263), PRESERVED-HF (Dapagliflozin in Preserved Ejection Fraction Heart Failure; n=324), and CHIEF-HF (A Study on Impact of Canagliflozin on Health Status, Quality of Life, and Functional Status in Heart Failure; n=448). These 3 United States-based trials enrolled a substantial proportion of Black patients, and each used the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) to measure health status at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Among 1035 total participants, selecting self-identified Black and White patients with complete information yielded a final analytic cohort of 935 patients. The primary endpoint was KCCQ Clinical Summary score. Twelve-week change in KCCQ with SGLT2is versus placebo was compared between Black and White patients by testing the interaction between race and treatment using multivariable linear regression models adjusted for trial, baseline KCCQ (as a restricted cubic spline), race, and treatment. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.

RESULTS: Among 935 participants, 236 (25%) self-identified as Black, and 469 (50.2%) were treated with an SGLT2i. Treatment with an SGLT2i, compared with placebo, resulted in KCCQ Clinical Summary score improvements at 12 weeks of +4.0 points (95% CI, 1.7-6.3; P=0.0007) in White patients and +4.7 points (95% CI, 0.7-8.7; P=0.02) in Black patients, with no significant interaction by race and treatment (P=0.76). Other KCCQ scales showed similar results.

CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with an SGLT2i resulted in consistent and significant improvements in health status for both Black and White patients with heart failure.

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ePub ahead of print