Periprocedural Mortality in Chronic Total Occlusion Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the PROGRESS-CTO Registry

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Circ Cardiovasc Interv


BACKGROUND: Death is a rare but devastating complication of chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention.

METHODS: We examined the clinical characteristics and procedural outcomes of patients who died periprocedurally in the Prospective Global Registry for the Study of CTO Interventions (PROGRESS-CTO).

RESULTS: Of the 12 928 patients who underwent CTO percutaneous coronary intervention between 2012 and 2022, 52 (0.4%) died during the index hospitalization. Patients who died were more likely to have a history of heart failure (43% versus 28%; P=0.023). The J-CTO ([Multicenter CTO Registry of Japan]; 2.8±1.1 versus 2.4±1.3; P=0.019), PROGRESS-CTO mortality (2.6±0.9 versus 1.6±1.1; P<0.001), and PROGRESS-CTO pericardiocentesis (2.9±1.1 versus 1.9±1.3; P<0.001) scores were higher in patients who died. In these patients, the use of left ventricular assist devices was also higher (41% versus 3.5%; P<0.001), and retrograde crossing was more often the first crossing strategy (33% versus 13%; P<0.001). The cause of death was cardiac in 43 patients (83%) and noncardiac in 9 patients (17%). Complications leading to cardiac death were: tamponade in 30 patients (58%), acute myocardial infarction in 9 (17.3%), and cardiac arrest/shock in 4 (7.7%). Noncardiac causes of death were: stroke in 3 (5.8%), renal failure in 2 (3.8%), respiratory distress in 2 (3.8%), and hemorrhagic shock in 2 (3.8%).

CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 0.4% of patients who underwent CTO percutaneous coronary intervention died during the index hospitalization. The main cause of death was tamponade in 58%. PROGRESS-CTO complication scores might help in risk stratification and procedural planning in patients undergoing CTO percutaneous coronary intervention.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Coronary Occlusion; Prospective Studies; Treatment Outcome; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Registries; Chronic Disease; Risk Factors; Coronary Angiography

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