Sex Differences in pLVAD-Assisted High-Risk Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Insights From the PROTECT III Study

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JACC Cardiovasc Interv


BACKGROUND: Prior studies have found that female patients have worse outcomes following high-risk percutaneous coronary intervention (HRPCI).

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate sex-based differences in patient and procedural characteristics, clinical outcomes, and safety of Impella-supported HRPCI in the PROTECT III study.

METHODS: We evaluated sex-based differences in the PROTECT III study; a prospective, multicenter, observational study of patients undergoing Impella-supported HRPCI. The primary outcome was 90-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE)-the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, and repeat revascularization.

RESULTS: From March 2017 to March 2020, 1,237 patients (27% female) were enrolled. Female patients were older, more often Black, more often anemic, and had more prior strokes and worse renal function, but higher ejection fractions compared to male patients. Preprocedural SYNTAX score was similar between sexes (28.0 ± 12.3). Female patients were more likely to present with acute myocardial infarction (40.7% vs 33.2%; P = 0.02) and more often had femoral access used for PCI and nonfemoral access used for Impella device implantation. Female patients had higher rates of immediate PCI-related coronary complications (4.2% vs 2.1%; P = 0.004) and a greater drop in SYNTAX score post-procedure (-22.6 vs -21.0; P = 0.04). There were no sex differences in 90-day MACCE, vascular complications requiring surgery, major bleeding, or acute limb ischemia. After adjustment using propensity matching and multivariable regression, immediate PCI-related complications was the only safety or clinical outcome that was significantly different by sex.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, rates of 90-day MACCE compared favorably to prior cohorts of HRPCI patients and there was no significant sex differences.


The PROTECT III Study is a substudy of The Global cVAD Study [cVAD]; NCT04136392.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Male; Female; Coronary Artery Disease; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Prospective Studies; Treatment Outcome; Myocardial Infarction; Stroke; Risk Factors

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