Early Longitudinal Change in Heart Failure Health Status Following Initiation of Canagliflozin

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JACC Heart Fail


BACKGROUND: Sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) therapy improves health status in heart failure (HF). There is insufficient description regarding the timing, rate, and extent of the health status changes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) after initiation of SGLT2is.

OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to model the association of canagliflozin treatment with rates of change in HF symptom status in HFpEF and HFrEF.

METHODS: Study participants with HFrEF and HFpEF were treated with either canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Total Symptom Score (KCCQ-TSS) was assessed at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks. Longitudinal modeling assessed slope of KCCQ change across the study.

RESULTS: Among 448 individuals with HF (181 with HFrEF and 267 with HFpEF), participants with HFpEF had lower baseline KCCQ-TSS scores than those with HFrEF (54 ± 21 vs 64 ± 20). Modeling demonstrated initial rapid improvement in KCCQ-TSS in both HF groups, with deceleration over the next 4 to 6 weeks. The rate of change was greater among HFpEF participants (0.7 points/day; 95% CI: 0.3-1.1 points/day) than HFrEF participants (ΔKCCQ-TSS/day = 0.5; 95% CI: 0.1-1.0 points/day) randomized to canagliflozin, but these differences were not statistically significant (0.2 points/day; 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.7 points/day; P = 056).

CONCLUSIONS: After canagliflozin therapy, regardless of EF, modeling shows the KCCQ-TSS improves rapidly with the greatest improvements occurring within the first weeks of treatment. These results have implications for clinical use of SGLT2is and may be useful in the design of trials examining impact of these agents on health status in HF. (A Study on Impact of Canagliflozin on Health Status, Quality of Life, and Functional Status in Heart Failure [CHIEF-HF]; NCT04252287).

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ePub ahead of print