Abnormalities of Mitochondrial Dynamics in the Failing Heart: Normalization Following Long-Term Therapy with Elamipretide
Sabbah HN, Gupta RC, Singh-Gupta V, Zhang K, Lanfear DE. Abnormalities of mitochondrial dynamics in the failing heart: Normalization following long-term therapy with elamipretide. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. Jun 27 2018; 32(4):319-328.
Cardiovascular drugs and therapy / sponsored by the International Society of Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
PURPOSE: Abnormalities of MITO dynamics occur in HF and have been implicated in disease progression. This study describes the broad range abnormalities of mitochondrial (MITO) dynamics in Heart Failure with reduced ejection fraction (HF) and evaluates the effects of long-term therapy with elamipretide (ELAM), a MITO-targeting peptide, on these abnormalities.
METHODS: Studies were performed in left ventricular tissue from dogs and humans with HF, and were compared with tissue from healthy dogs and healthy donor human hearts. Dogs with HF were randomized to 3 months therapy with ELAM or vehicle. The following were evaluated in dog and human hearts: (1) regulators of MITO biogenesis, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a transcription factor that drives MITO biogenesis); (2) regulators of MITO fission and fusion, including fission-1, dynamin-related protein-1, mitofusion-2, dominant optic atrophy-1, and mitofilin; and (3) determinants of cardiolipin (CL) synthesis and remodeling, including CL synthase-1, tafazzin-1, and acyl-CoA:lysocardiolipin acyltransferase-1.
RESULTS: The study showed decreased levels of eNOS, cGMP, and PGC-1α in HF (dog and human). Increased levels of fission-associated proteins, decreased levels of fusion-associated proteins, decreased mitofilin, and abnormalities of CL synthesis and remodeling were also observed. In all instances, these maladaptations were normalized following long-term therapy with ELAM.
CONCLUSIONS: Critical abnormalities of MITO dynamics occur in HF and are normalized following long-term therapy with ELAM. The findings provide support for the continued development of ELAM for the treatment of HF.
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Cardiovascular Agents; Disease Models, Animal; Dogs; Energy Metabolism; Heart Failure; Humans; Mitochondria, Heart; Mitochondrial Dynamics; Mitochondrial Proteins; Myocytes, Cardiac; Oligopeptides; Time Factors