The iATTEND Trial: A Trial Comparing Hybrid Versus Standard Cardiac Rehabilitation

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The American journal of cardiology


The improving ATTENDance (iATTEND) to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) trial tested the hypotheses that hybrid CR (HYCR) (combination of virtual and in-facility CR sessions) would result in greater attendance compared with traditional, facility-based only CR (FBCR) and yield equivalent improvements in exercise capacity and health status. Patients were randomized to HYCR (n = 142) or FBCR (n = 140), stratified by gender and race. Attendance was assessed as number of CR sessions completed within 6 months (primary end point) and the percentage of patients completing 36 CR sessions. Other end points (tested for equivalency) included exercise capacity and self-reported health status. HYCR patients completed 1 to 12 sessions in-facility, with the balance completed virtually using synchronized, 2-way audiovisual technology. Neither total number of CR sessions completed within 6 months (29 ± 12 vs 28 ± 12 visits, adjusted p = 0.94) nor percentage of patients completing 36 sessions (59 ± 4% vs 51 ± 4%, adjusted p = 0.32) were significantly different between HYCR and FBCR, respectively. The between-group changes for exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake, 6-minute walk distance) and health status were equivalent. Regarding safety, no sessions required physician involvement, there was 1 major adverse event after a virtual session, and no falls required medical attention. In conclusion, although we rejected our primary hypothesis that attendance would be greater with HYCR versus FBCR, we showed that FBCR and HYCR resulted in similar patient attendance patterns and equivalent improvements in exercise capacity and health status. HYCR which incorporates virtually supervised exercise should be considered an acceptable alternative to FBCR.

NCT Identifier: 03646760; The Improving ATTENDance to Cardiac Rehabilitation Trial - Full-Text View - ClinicalTrials. gov;

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ePub ahead of print



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