Coronary artery perforations after contemporary percutaneous coronary interventions: Evaluation of incidence, risk factors, outcomes, and predictors of mortality

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Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions


OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the incidence, risk factors, in-hospital, and long-term outcomes and predictors of mortality of coronary artery perforations (CAP) in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era.

BACKGROUND: CAP is a rare but serious complication of PCI associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

METHODS: We included 181,590 procedures performed across 47 hospitals in Michigan from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015. Endpoints evaluated included the incidence of CAP and its association with in-hospital outcomes. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine independent risk factors for CAP and to examine whether the effect of CAP on mortality varied by gender.

RESULTS: CAP occurred in 625 (0.34%) patients. Independent predictors for CAP included older age, peripheral arterial disease, presence of left ventricular dysfunction or cardiomyopathy, lower body mass index, pre-PCI insertion of a mechanical ventricular support device, treatment of complex lesions (Type C), and treatment of chronic total occlusions, the latter of which was the strongest predictor of perforation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 7.01, P < 0.001). After adjusting for baseline risk, the incidence of adverse outcomes remained substantially greater in patients with a perforation, with an adjusted OR estimate of 5.00 for mortality (95% CI 3.42-7.31), 3.25 for acute kidney injury (95% CI 2.30-4.58), and 5.26 for transfusion (95% CI 4.03-6.87) (all P < 0.001). Perforation was associated with a higher mortality in women than men (interaction P value = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: CAP is a rare complication but is associated with high morbidity and mortality especially in women. Further investigation is warranted to determine why women fare worse after CAP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Medical Subject Headings

Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Coronary Vessels; Female; Heart Injuries; Hospital Mortality; Humans; Incidence; Logistic Models; Male; Michigan; Middle Aged; Multivariate Analysis; Odds Ratio; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Propensity Score; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Sex Factors; Time Factors; Treatment Outcome

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