Reflections on the early invasive clinical cardiac electrophysiology era through fifty manuscripts: 1967-1992.
In 1967, researchers in The Netherlands and France independently reported a new technique, later called programmed electrical stimulation. The ability to reproducibly initiate and terminate arrhythmias heralded the beginning of invasive clinical cardiac electrophysiology as a medical discipline. Over the next fifty years, insights into the pathophysiologic basis of arrhythmias would transform the field into an interventional specialty with a tremendous armamentarium of procedures. In 2015, the variety and complexity of these procedures were major reasons that led to the recommendation for an increase in the training period from one year to two years. The purpose of this manuscript is to present fifty manuscripts from the early invasive clinical cardiac electrophysiology era, between 1967 and 1992, to serve as an educational resource for current and future electrophysiologists. It is our hope that reflection on the transition from a predominantly noninvasive discipline to one where procedures are commonly utilized will lead to more thoughtful patient care today and to inspiration for innovation tomorrow. In the words of the late Dr. Mark E. Josephson, "It is only by getting back to the basics that the field of electrophysiology will continue to grow instead of stagnate."