Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement in Native Mitral Valve Disease With Severe Mitral Annular Calcification: Results From the First Multicenter Global Registry

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JACC Cardiovasc Interv


OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the outcomes of the early experience of transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) with balloon-expandable valves in patients with severe mitral annular calcification (MAC) and reports the first large series from a multicenter global registry.

BACKGROUND: The risk of surgical mitral valve replacement in patients with severe MAC is high. There are isolated reports of successful TMVR with balloon-expandable valves in this patient population.

METHODS: We performed a multicenter retrospective review of clinical outcomes of patients with severe MAC undergoing TMVR.

RESULTS: From September 2012 to July of 2015, 64 patients in 32 centers underwent TMVR with compassionate use of balloon-expandable valves. Mean age was 73 ± 13 years, 66% were female, and mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score was 14.4 ± 9.5%. The mean mitral gradient was 11.45 ± 4.4 mm Hg and the mean mitral area was 1.18 ± 0.5 cm(2). SAPIEN valves (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California) were used in 7.8%, SAPIEN XT in 59.4%, SAPIEN 3 in 28.1%, and Inovare (Braile Biomedica, Brazil) in 4.7%. Access was transatrial in 15.6%, transapical in 43.8%, and transseptal in 40.6%. Technical success according to Mitral Valve Academic Research Consortium criteria was achieved in 46 (72%) patients, primarily limited by the need for a second valve in 11 (17.2%). Six (9.3%) had left ventricular tract obstruction with hemodynamic compromise. Mean mitral gradient post-procedure was 4 ± 2.2 mm Hg, paravalvular regurgitation was mild or absent in all. Thirty-day all-cause mortality was 29.7% (cardiovascular = 12.5% and noncardiac = 17.2%); 84% of the survivors with follow-up data available were in New York Heart Association functional class I or II at 30 days (n = 25).

CONCLUSIONS: TMVR with balloon-expandable valves in patients with severe MAC is feasible but may be associated with significant adverse events. This strategy might be an alternative for selected high-risk patients with limited treatment options.

Medical Subject Headings

Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Balloon Valvuloplasty; Calcinosis; Cardiac Catheterization; Europe; Female; Heart Valve Diseases; Heart Valve Prosthesis; Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Mitral Valve; North America; Patient Selection; Postoperative Complications; Prosthesis Design; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Assessment; Risk Factors; Severity of Illness Index; South America; Time Factors; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Treatment Outcome

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