Trends and outcomes of non-primary PCI at sites without cardiac surgery on-site: The early Michigan experience

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PLoS One


INTRODUCTION: Non-primary percutaneous coronary intervention (non-PPCI) recently received certificate of need approval in the state of Michigan at sites without cardiac surgery on-site (cSoS). This requires quality oversight through participation in the BMC2 registry. While previous studies have indicated the safety of this practice, real-world comprehensive outcomes, case volume changes, economic impacts, and readmission rates at diverse healthcare centers with and without cSoS remain poorly understood.

METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing non-PPCI at 47 hospitals (33 cSoS and 14 non-cSoS) in Michigan from April 2016 to March 2018 were included. Using propensity-matching, patients were analyzed to assess outcomes and trends in non-PPCI performance at sites with and without cSOS.

RESULTS: Of 61,864 PCI's performed, 50,817 were non-PPCI, with 46,096 (90.7%) performed at sites with cSoS and 4,721 (9.3%) at sites without cSoS. From this cohort, 4,643 propensity-matched patients were analyzed. Rates of major adverse cardiac events (2.6% vs. 2.8%; p = 0.443), in-hospital mortality (0.6% vs. 0.5%; p = 0.465), and several secondary clinical and quality outcomes showed no clinically significant differences. Among a small subset with available post-discharge data, there were no differences in 90-day readmission rates, standardized episode costs, or post-discharge mortality. Overall PCI volume remained stable, with a near three-fold rise in non-PPCI at sites without cSoS.

CONCLUSIONS: Non-PPCI at centers without cardiac SoS was associated with similar comprehensive outcomes, quality of care, 90-day episode costs, and post-discharge mortality compared with surgical sites. Mandatory quality oversight serves to maintain appropriate equivalent outcomes and may be considered for other programs, including the performance of non-PPCI at ambulatory surgical centers in the near future.

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