Chehab O, Morsi RZ, Kanj A, Rachwan RJ, Pahuja M, Mansour S, Tabaja H, Ahmad U, Zein SE, Raad M, Saker A, Alvarez P, and Briasoulis A. Incidence and clinical outcomes of nosocomial infections in patients presenting with STEMI complicated by cardiogenic shock in the United States. Heart Lung 2020; 49(6):716-723.
Heart & lung : the journal of critical care
OBJECTIVES: This study addresses the incidence, trends, and impact of nosocomial infections (NI) on the outcomes of patients admitted with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and cardiogenic shock (STEMI-CS) using the United States National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database.
METHODS: We analyzed data from 105,184 STEMI-CS patients using the NIS database from the years 2005-2014. NI was defined as infections of more than or equal to three days, comprising of central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), urinary tract infection (UTI), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), bacteremia, and skin related infections. Outcomes of the impact of NI on STEMI-CS included in-hospital mortality, length of hospital stay (LOS) and costs. Significant associations of NI in patients admitted with STEMI-CS were also identified.
RESULTS: Overall, 19.1% (20,137) of patients admitted with STEMI-CS developed NI. Trends of NI have decreased from 2005-2014. The most common NI were UTI (9.2%), followed by HAP (6.8%), CLABSI (1.5%), bacteremia (1.5%), skin related infections (1.5%), and CDI (1.3%). The strongest association of developing a NI was increasing LOS (7-9 days; OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.75-2.26; >9 days; OR: 4.51; 95% CI: 4.04-5.04 compared to 4-6 days as reference). Increased mortality risk among patients with NI was significant, especially those with sepsis-associated NI compared to those without sepsis (OR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.72-3.20). Patients with NI were found to be associated with significantly longer LOS and higher costs, irrespective of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support placement.
CONCLUSIONS: NI were common among patients with STEMI-CS. Those who developed NI were at a greater risk of in-hospital mortality, increased LOS and costs.