Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

The Journal of cardiovascular nursing


BACKGROUND: Patients with a left ventricular assist device are a unique and growing population who deserve their own valid, reliable instrument for health-related quality of life.

OBJECTIVE: We developed and tested the Health-Related Quality of Life with a Left Ventricular Assist Device (QOLVAD) questionnaire.

METHODS: In a prospective, descriptive study, patients from 7 sites completed the QOLVAD and comparator questionnaires. Construct validity was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Convergent validity was tested using correlations of QOLVAD scores to well-established measures of subjective health status, depression, anxiety, and meaning/faith. Reliability and test-retest reliability were quantified.

RESULTS: Patients (n = 213) were 58.7 ± 13.9 years old; 81.0% were male, 73.7% were White, and 48.0% had bridge to transplant. Questionnaires were completed at a median time of 44 weeks post ventricular assist device. The 5 QOLVAD domains had acceptable construct validity (root mean square error of approximation = 0.064, comparative and Tucker-Lewis fit indices > 0.90, weighted root mean square residual = 0.95). The total score and domain-specific scores were significantly correlated with the instruments to which they were compared. Internal consistency reliability was acceptable for all subscales (α = .79-.83) except the cognitive domain (α = .66). Unidimensional reliability for the total score was acceptable (α = .93), as was factor determinacy for multidimensional reliability (0.95). Total test-retest reliability was 0.875 (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Our analysis provided initial support for validity and reliability of the QOLVAD for total score, physical, emotional, social, and meaning/spiritual domains. The QOLVAD has potential in research and clinical settings to guide decision making and referrals; further studies are needed.

PubMed ID



ePub ahead of print



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.