Racial, Ethnic, and Sex Disparities in Patients With STEMI and Cardiogenic Shock

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JACC Cardiovasc Interv


OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the combined impact of race, ethnicity, and sex on in-hospital outcomes using data from the National Inpatient Sample.

BACKGROUND: Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a major cause of mortality following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Early revascularization reduces mortality in such patients. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are increasingly used to hemodynamically support patients during revascularization. Little is known about racial, ethnic, and sex disparities in patients with STEMI and CS.

METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample was queried from January 2006 to September 2015 for hospitalizations with STEMI and CS. The associations between sex, race, ethnicity, and outcomes were examined using complex-samples multivariate logistic or generalized linear model regressions.

RESULTS: Of 159,339 patients with STEMI and CS, 57,839 (36.3%) were women. In-hospital mortality was higher for all women (range 40% to 45.4%) compared with men (range 30.4% to 34.7%). Women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06 to 1.16; p < 0.001) as well as Black (aOR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.34; p = 0.011) and Hispanic (aOR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.06 to 1.33; p = 0.003) men had higher odds of in-hospital mortality compared with White men, with Hispanic women having the highest odds of in-hospital mortality (aOR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.26 to 1.70; p < 0.001). Women were older (age: 69.8 years vs. 63.2 years), had more comorbidities, and underwent fewer invasive cardiac procedures, including revascularization, right heart catheterization, and MCS.

CONCLUSIONS: There are significant racial, ethnic, and sex differences in procedural utilization and clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI and CS. Women are less likely to undergo invasive cardiac procedures, including revascularization and MCS. Women as well as Black and Hispanic patients have a higher likelihood of death compared with White men.

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