Simard T, Jung RG, Lehenbauer K, Piayda K, Pracoń R, Jackson GG, Flores-Umanzor E, Faroux L, Korsholm K, Chun JKR, Chen S, Maarse M, Montrella K, Chaker Z, Spoon JN, Pastormerlo LE, Meincke F, Sawant AC, Moldovan CM, Qintar M, Aktas MK, Branca L, Radinovic A, Ram P, El-Zein RS, Flautt T, Ding WY, Sayegh B, Benito-González T, Lee OH, Badejoko SO, Paitazoglou C, Karim N, Zaghloul AM, Agrawal H, Kaplan RM, Alli O, Ahmed A, Suradi HS, Knight BP, Alla VM, Panaich SS, Wong T, Bergmann MW, Chothia R, Kim JS, Pérez de Prado A, Bazaz R, Gupta D, Valderrabano M, Sanchez CE, El Chami MF, Mazzone P, Adamo M, Ling F, Wang DD, O'Neill W, Wojakowski W, Pershad A, Berti S, Spoon D, Kawsara A, Jabbour G, Boersma LVA, Schmidt B, Nielsen-Kudsk JE, Rodés-Cabau J, Freixa X, Ellis CR, Fauchier L, Demkow M, Sievert H, Main ML, Hibbert B, Holmes DR, Jr., and Alkhouli M. Predictors of Device-Related Thrombus Following Percutaneous Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion. J Am Coll Cardiol 2021; 78(4):297-313.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology
BACKGROUND: Device-related thrombus (DRT) has been considered an Achilles' heel of left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO). However, data on DRT prediction remain limited.
OBJECTIVES: This study constructed a DRT registry via a multicenter collaboration aimed to assess outcomes and predictors of DRT.
METHODS: Thirty-seven international centers contributed LAAO cases with and without DRT (device-matched and temporally related to the DRT cases). This study described the management patterns and mid-term outcomes of DRT and assessed patient and procedural predictors of DRT.
RESULTS: A total of 711 patients (237 with and 474 without DRT) were included. Follow-up duration was similar in the DRT and no-DRT groups, median 1.8 years (interquartile range: 0.9-3.0 years) versus 1.6 years (interquartile range: 1.0-2.9 years), respectively (P = 0.76). DRTs were detected between days 0 to 45, 45 to 180, 180 to 365, and >365 in 24.9%, 38.8%, 16.0%, and 20.3% of patients. DRT presence was associated with a higher risk of the composite endpoint of death, ischemic stroke, or systemic embolization (HR: 2.37; 95% CI, 1.58-3.56; P < 0.001) driven by ischemic stroke (HR: 3.49; 95% CI: 1.35-9.00; P = 0.01). At last known follow-up, 25.3% of patients had DRT. Discharge medications after LAAO did not have an impact on DRT. Multivariable analysis identified 5 DRT risk factors: hypercoagulability disorder (odds ratio [OR]: 17.50; 95% CI: 3.39-90.45), pericardial effusion (OR: 13.45; 95% CI: 1.46-123.52), renal insufficiency (OR: 4.02; 95% CI: 1.22-13.25), implantation depth >10 mm from the pulmonary vein limbus (OR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.57-3.69), and non-paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (OR: 1.90; 95% CI: 1.22-2.97). Following conversion to risk factor points, patients with ≥2 risk points for DRT had a 2.1-fold increased risk of DRT compared with those without any risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: DRT after LAAO is associated with ischemic events. Patient- and procedure-specific factors are associated with the risk of DRT and may aid in risk stratification of patients referred for LAAO.