Sennott J, and Ananthasubramaniam K. Multimodality imaging approach to cardiac amyloidosis: part 2. Heart Fail Rev 2021.
Heart failure reviews
With recent advances in cardiac imaging, genetics, and treatment options, cardiac amyloidosis (CA) is now recognized as an important and under diagnosed condition contributing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although still considered a rare disease, CA is now recognized as an important contributor to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and low gradient aortic stenosis, two important conditions commonly faced in clinical practice. This review uses clinical scenarios to highlight the complementary role of traditional imaging tools such as electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiography (echo) in conjunction with advanced cardiac imaging with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and nuclear cardiac scintigraphy using bone avid tracers in the comprehensive workup of CA. We also highlight the importance of workup of light chain disease as part of integration of imaging findings and discuss the key aspects of various imaging modalities. Finally, an algorithm integrating clinical suspicion, laboratory testing, and imaging in the workup of CA is presented.
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