Risk Prediction in Cardiogenic Shock: Current State of Knowledge, Challenges and Opportunities

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Journal of cardiac failure


Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a condition associated with high mortality rates in which prognostication is uncertain for a variety of reasons, including its myriad causes, its rapidly evolving clinical course and the plethora of established and emerging therapies for the condition. A number of validated risk scores are available for CS prognostication; however, many of these are tedious to use, are designed for application in a variety of populations and fail to incorporate contemporary hemodynamic parameters and contemporary mechanical circulatory support interventions that can affect outcomes. It is important to separate patients with CS who may recover with conservative pharmacological therapies from those in who may require advanced therapies to survive; it is equally important to identify quickly those who will succumb despite any therapy. An ideal risk-prediction model would balance incorporation of key hemodynamic parameters while still allowing dynamic use in multiple scenarios, from aiding with early decision making to device weaning. Herein, we discuss currently available CS risk scores, perform a detailed analysis of the variables in each of these scores that are most predictive of CS outcomes and explore a framework for the development of novel risk scores that consider emerging therapies and paradigms for this challenging clinical entity.

Medical Subject Headings

Heart Failure; Hemodynamics; Humans; Risk Factors; Shock, Cardiogenic

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