Epidemiology and clinical manifestations of cardiac amyloidosis

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Heart failure reviews


Cardiac amyloidosis, once considered a rare disease, has garnered significant attention over the last few years due to three key reasons: first, increased recognition of this disease in conjunction with various common cardiac conditions such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and aortic stenosis; second, due to the advent of promising new therapies for light chain disease (AL), transthyretin (ATTR) cardiomyopathy, and amyloid neuropathy; finally, the advancements in cardiac imaging including echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear cardiac scintigraphy aid in non-biopsy diagnosis of ATTR cardiac amyloidosis. The hereditary forms of ATTR have further come into importance with the availability of genetic testing and increased prevalence of certain mutations in African Americans. Recognition of non-cardiac clues to this disease has gained importance and reiterates that high clinical suspicion, detailed patient history, and examination with appropriate use of imaging are vital to confirm the diagnosis.

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ePub ahead of print