Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction in Patients with Non-Obstructive Coronary Arteries: Current Gaps and Future Directions

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There has been increasing interest in open artery syndrome, also known as ischemia with non-obstructive coronary arteries (INOCA). INOCA has been increasingly recognized as a heterogeneous clinical entity. Diagnostic evaluation of this heterogeneous entity, including invasive assessment, remains key to diagnose this clinical condition and provide the appropriate treatment. Importantly, medical stratification based on the type of INOCA has shown benefit in improving the symptoms in these patients, as illustrated in the CorMicA trial. The Women's IschemiA Trial to Reduce Events in Non-ObstRuctIve CORonary Artery Disease (WARRIOR) is another promising landmark trial that is currently enrolling patients and will address some of the unanswered questions for management of women with INOCA. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, management options, knowledge gaps, and future directions while highlighting the rationale and design of the ongoing WARRIOR trial.

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ePub ahead of print