Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

J Am Coll Cardiol


Background: There is a paucity of data on the use of protamine after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 168 patients who underwent PCI from 2015 to 2021. All patients received protamine intra- or immediately after index PCI. We evaluated baseline characteristics, intraprocedural characteristics including heparin dosing and protamine dosing, and complications such as acute stent thrombosis (ST), dissection, perforation, and access-site bleeding. The primary outcome was the incidence of acute ST, subacute ST, and other thrombotic complications. Secondary outcomes included mortality within 24 hours and within 28 days of the index procedure.

Results: One hundred sixty-eight patients were included. The mean age of patients was 72 ± 12.1 years, and 36% were women. The majority of patients received antiplatelet therapy prior to the index procedure (90%), and the average ejection fraction (EF) was 50% ± 14.3%. Of the 33 insulin-dependent patients (20%), only 1 (0.5%) used neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin. One hundred fifteen of the procedures (68%) were elective, and the average procedure time was 3 hours 21 minutes (SD 1 hour 43 minutes). Fifty-nine patients underwent rotational, orbital, or laser atherectomy (27, 23, and 9 patients, respectively). An average of 2.59 ± 1.38 stents were deployed, and intravascular ultrasound was used in 96 patients (57%). An average protamine dose of 32 mg was administered. Seventy-three patients (43%) had coronary perforations, and 19 (11%) had pericardial effusions requiring pericardiocentesis. Twenty-one patients (13%) had coronary dissections following PCI, and 6 (4%) had access-site bleeding requiring transfusion. Three patients (2%) underwent urgent cardiac surgery. Eight (5%) died within 24 hours of PCI, and 6 (3.5%) died within 28 days of PCI. Four patients (2%) had acute ST, no patients experienced subacute ST, and 1 patient (0.5%) developed arterial thrombosis (common femoral artery).

Conclusions: Use protamine in PCI typically occurred because of intraprocedural complications. In our series, protamine was tolerated well in the majority of patients, but 3% of patients experienced coronary or arterial thrombosis, warranting caution when using protamine in these challenging scenarios.

Categories: CORONARY: Stents: Drug-Eluting





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