Discovery and fine-mapping of height loci via high-density imputation of GWASs in individuals of African ancestry
Graff M, Justice AE, Young KL, Marouli E, Zhang X, Fine RS, Lim E, Buchanan V, Rand K, Feitosa MF, Wojczynski MK, Yanek LR, Shao Y, Rohde R, Adeyemo AA, Aldrich MC, Allison MA, Ambrosone CB, Ambs S, Amos C, Arnett DK, Atwood L, Bandera EV, Bartz T, Becker DM, Berndt SI, Bernstein L, Bielak LF, Blot WJ, Bottinger EP, Bowden DW, Bradfield JP, Brody JA, Broeckel U, Burke G, Cade BE, Cai Q, Caporaso N, Carlson C, Carpten J, Casey G, Chanock SJ, Chen G, Chen M, Chen YI, Chen W, Chesi A, Chiang CW, Chu L, Coetzee GA, Conti DV, Cooper RS, Cushman M, Demerath E, Deming SL, Dimitrov L, Ding J, Diver W, Duan Q, Evans MK, Falusi AG, Faul JD, Fornage M, Fox C, Freedman BI, Garcia M, Gillanders EM, Goodman P, Gottesman O, Grant SF, Guo X, Hakonarson H, Haritunians T, Harris TB, Harris CC, Henderson BE, Hennis A, Hernandez DG, Hirschhorn JN, McNeill L, Howard TE, Howard B, Hsing AW, Hsu YH, Hu JJ, Huff CD, Huo D, Ingles SA, Irvin MR, John EM, Johnson KC, Jordan JM, Kabagambe EK, Kang SJ, Kardia SL, Keating BJ, Kittles RA, Klein EA, Kolb S, Kolonel LN, Kooperberg C, Kuller L, Kutlar A, Lange L, Langefeld CD, Le Marchand L, Leonard H, Lettre G, Levin AM, Li Y, Li J, Liu Y, Liu Y, Liu S, Lohman K, Lotay V, Lu Y, Maixner W, Manson JE, McKnight B, Meng Y, Monda KL, Monroe K, Moore JH, Mosley TH, Mudgal P, Murphy AB, Nadukuru R, Nalls MA, Nathanson KL, Nayak U, N'Diaye A, Nemesure B, Neslund-Dudas C, Neuhouser ML, Nyante S, Ochs-Balcom H, Ogundiran TO, Ogunniyi A, Ojengbede O, Okut H, Olopade OI, Olshan A, Padhukasahasram B, Palmer J, Palmer CD, Palmer ND, Papanicolaou G, Patel SR, Pettaway CA, Peyser PA, Press MF, Rao D, Rasmussen-Torvik LJ, Redline S, Reiner AP, Rhie SK, Rodriguez-Gil JL, Rotimi CN, Rotter JI, Ruiz-Narvaez EA, Rybicki BA, Salako B, Sale MM, Sanderson M, Schadt E, Schreiner PJ, Schurmann C, Schwartz AG, Shriner DA, Signorello LB, Singleton AB, Siscovick DS, Smith JA, Smith S, Speliotes E, Spitz M, Stanford JL, Stevens VL, Stram A, Strom SS, Sucheston L, Sun YV, Tajuddin SM, Taylor H, Taylor K, Tayo BO, Thun MJ, Tucker MA, Vaidya D, Van Den Berg DJ, Vedantam S, Vitolins M, Wang Z, Ware EB, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Weir DR, Wiencke JK, Williams SM, Williams KL, Wilson JG, Witte JS, Wrensch M, Wu X, Yao J, Zakai N, Zanetti K, Zemel BS, Zhao W, Zhao J, Zheng W, Zhi D, Zhou J, Zhu X, Ziegler RG, Zmuda J, Zonderman AB, Psaty BM, Borecki IB, Cupples L, Liu C, Haiman CA, Loos R, Ng MC, North KE. Discovery and fine-mapping of height loci via high-density imputation of GWASs in individuals of African ancestry. American journal of human genetics 2021; 108(4):564-582.
American journal of human genetics
Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.