Association Between Social Determinants of Health and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Youths With Psychiatric Diagnoses
Llamocca EN, Steelesmith DL, Ruch DA, Bridge JA, and Fontanella CA. Association Between Social Determinants of Health and Deliberate Self-Harm Among Youths With Psychiatric Diagnoses. Psychiatr Serv 2022.
Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.)
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to examine the association between adverse social determinants of health (SDoHs) and risk for self-harm among youths.
METHODS: The authors performed a retrospective longitudinal analysis of Ohio Medicaid claims data (April 1, 2016-December 31, 2018) of 244,958 youths (ages 10-17 years) with a primary psychiatric diagnosis. SDoHs were identified from ICD-10 codes and classified into 14 categories, encompassing abuse and neglect, child welfare placement, educational problems, financial problems, exposure to violence, housing instability, legal issues, disappearance or death of a family member, family disruption by separation or divorce, family alcohol or drug use, parent-child conflict, other family problems, social and environmental problems, and nonspecific psychosocial needs. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to examine the association between SDoHs and self-harm (i.e., nonsuicidal self-injury or suicide attempt). Analyses controlled for demographic characteristics and comorbid psychiatric and general medical conditions.
RESULTS: During follow-up after an index claim event, 51,796 youths (21.1%) had at least one adverse SDoH indicator, and 3,262 (1.3%) had at least one self-harm event. Abuse and neglect (hazard ratio [HR]=1.90, 99% CI=1.70-2.12), child welfare placement (HR=1.32, 99% CI=1.04-1.67), parent-child conflict (HR=1.52, 99% CI=1.23-1.87), other family problems (HR=1.25, 99% CI=1.01-1.54), and nonspecific psychosocial needs (HR=1.41, 99% CI=1.06-1.89) were associated with significantly increased hazard of self-harm.
CONCLUSIONS: Adverse SDoHs were significantly associated with self-harm, even after controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, underscoring the need for capturing SDoH information in medical records to identify youths at elevated suicide risk and to inform targeted interventions.
ePub ahead of print