Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Prev Med Rep


Vaccine requirements are policy-level strategies used to improve population health outcomes; however, discourse politicization of vaccines may hinder adoption and implementation. An example of the complexities related to adoption of vaccine policies in the United States (US) is the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine school-entry requirement. In 2018, Puerto Rico's (PR) Department of Health adopted this policy. This study assessed stakeholders' recommendations for adoption of the HPV vaccine school-entry requirement that could inform future vaccine policies. Stakeholders (e.g., researchers, members of medical and non-profit organizations) were interviewed from May to August 2018. Participants (n = 20) discussed recommendations for public health professionals interested in adopting such policy. Data were analyzed using applied thematic techniques. Participants emphasized the importance of raising HPV vaccine awareness and providing education prior to the requirement. They recommended using real stories and making the problem relevant by using local data. Participants recommended considering the local culture and government bureaucracies, and promoting multisectoral collaborations to combine limited resources. The combination of education efforts, local data, and multisectoral collaborations facilitated the adoption of the HPV vaccine school-entry requirement in PR. Findings highlight the need to understand the contextual distinctions of the communities where vaccination requirements may be adopted and implemented to anticipate barriers and leverage existing resources. Consideration of the politico-cultural context may be important as political beliefs have become entrenched with vaccine policy. These practical lessons can inform public health professionals and policymakers who are seeking to adopt and implement vaccine policies in other settings to ensure equitable vaccine access.

PubMed ID




First Page


Last Page




To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.