Post-Authorization Safety Study of Hospitalization for Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Exposed to Dapagliflozin in a Real-World Setting
Johannes CB, Beachler DC, Layton JB, Danysh HE, Ziemiecki R, Arana A, Dinh J, Li L, Calingaert B, Pladevall-Vila M, Hunt PR, Chen H, Karlsson C, Johnsson K, and Gilsenan A. Post-Authorization Safety Study of Hospitalization for Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Exposed to Dapagliflozin in a Real-World Setting. Drug Saf 2022.
INTRODUCTION: Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor approved to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), among other conditions. When dapagliflozin was approved in Europe for treating T2DM (2012), potential safety concerns regarding its effect on kidney function resulted in this post-authorization safety study to assess hospitalization for acute kidney injury (hAKI) among dapagliflozin initiators in a real-world setting.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of hAKI in adults with T2DM initiating dapagliflozin compared with other glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs).
METHODS: This noninterventional cohort study identified new users of dapagliflozin and comparator GLDs from November 2012 to February 2019 from three longitudinal, population-based data sources: Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD; United Kingdom), the HealthCore Integrated Research Database (HIRD; United States [US]), and Medicare (US). Electronic algorithms identified occurrences of hAKI, from which a sample underwent validation. Incidence rates for hAKI were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) compared hAKI in dapagliflozin with comparator GLDs. Propensity score trimming and stratification were conducted for confounding adjustment.
RESULTS: In all data sources, dapagliflozin initiators had a lower hAKI incidence rate than comparator GLD initiators (adjusted IRRs: CPRD, 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.22-0.86]; HIRD, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.62-0.93]; Medicare, 0.69 [95% CI, 0.59-0.79]). The adjusted IRR pooled across the data sources was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.62-0.78). Results from sensitivity and stratified analyses were consistent with the primary analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: This study, with > 34,000 person-years of real-world dapagliflozin exposure, suggests a decreased risk of hAKI in patients with T2DM exposed to dapagliflozin, aligning with results from dapagliflozin clinical trials.
STUDY REGISTRATION: European Union Post-Authorisation Studies Register, EUPAS 11684; ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02695082.
Medical Subject Headings
Aged; Adult; Humans; United States; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Cohort Studies; Medicare; Benzhydryl Compounds; Glucose; Hospitalization; Acute Kidney Injury; Hypoglycemic Agents
ePub ahead of print