Targeting tyrosinase in hyperpigmentation: Current status, limitations and future promises

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Biochemical pharmacology


Hyperpigmentation is a common and distressing dermatologic condition. Since tyrosinase (TYR) plays an essential role in melanogenesis, its inhibition is considered a logical approach along with other therapeutic methods to prevent the accumulation of melanin in the skin. Thus, TYR inhibitors are a tempting target as the medicinal and cosmetic active agents of hyperpigmentation disorder. Among TYR inhibitors, hydroquinone is a traditional lightening agent that is commonly used in clinical practice. However, despite good efficacy, prolonged use of hydroquinone is associated with side effects. To overcome these shortcomings, new approaches in targeting TYR and treating hyperpigmentation are desperately requiredessentialneeded. In line with this purpose, several non-hydroquinone lightening agents have been developed and suggested as hydroquinone alternatives. In addition to traditional approaches, nanomedicine and nanotheranostic platforms have been recently proposed in the treatment of hyperpigmentation. In this review, we discuss the available strategies for the management of hyperpigmentation with a focus on TYR inhibition. In addition, alternative treatment options to hydroquinone are discussed. Finally, we present nano-based strategies to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs prescribed to patients with skin disorders.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Monophenol Monooxygenase; Hyperpigmentation; Skin; Skin Lightening Preparations; Melanins

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ePub ahead of print



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