Evaluation of the protection of sunscreen products against long wavelength ultraviolet A1 and visible light-induced biological effects

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Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine


BACKGROUND: Long wavelength ultraviolet-A1 in combination with visible light induces hyperpigmentation, particularly in dark-skin phototypes. This study evaluated the efficacy of four sunscreen formulations in protecting against VL + UVA1 (370-700 nm).

METHODS: The test products (A-D) were applied to the back of 12 volunteers, then irradiated with 320 J/cm(2) VL + UVA1 (3.5% UVA1 [370-400 nm]). Immediately after irradiation, and at Days 1, 7, and 14, erythema and pigmentation were assessed by investigator global assessment (IGA), colorimetry (Δa* and ΔITA) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS)-measured relative dyschromia (area under the curve AUC). Control areas were irradiated without sunscreen.

RESULTS: Product D, containing titanium dioxide 11%, iron oxides 1%, and antioxidants, provided the highest and most consistent protection. Compared with unprotected irradiated control, it had statistically significantly less erythema on IGA, DRS (Δoxyhemoglobin), and colorimetry (Δa*) at Day 0; less pigmentation on IGA at all time points, on DRS (relative dyschromia) at Days 7 and 14, and on colorimetry (ΔITA) at Day 0. Product B, containing zinc oxide 12% plus organic UV filters, iron oxides 4%, and antioxidants, also showed some efficacy.

CONCLUSION: Of the sunscreens tested, the tinted products provided better protection against VL + UVA1 than the non-tinted products. Since the product with 1% iron oxides was superior to the product with 4% iron oxides, further studies are needed to evaluate whether iron oxide content correlates with better protection.

Medical Subject Headings

Humans; Sunscreening Agents; Ultraviolet Rays; Light; Erythema; Oxides; Iron; Immunoglobulin A; Skin

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ePub ahead of print





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