Relation of Decongestion and Time to Diuretics to Biomarker Changes and Outcomes in Acute Heart Failure

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The American journal of cardiology


Prompt treatment may mitigate the adverse effects of congestion in the early phase of heart failure (HF) hospitalization, which may lead to improved outcomes. We analyzed 814 acute HF patients for the relationships between time to first intravenous loop diuretics, changes in biomarkers of congestion and multi-organ dysfunction, and 1-year composite endpoint of death or HF hospitalization. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI), urine and serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and galectin 3 were measured at hospital admission, hospital day 1, 2, 3 and discharge. Time to diuretics was not correlated with the timing of decongestion defined as BNP decrease ≥ 30% compared to admission. Earlier BNP decreases but not time to diuretics were associated with earlier and greater decreases in hscTnI and urine NGAL, and lower incidence of the composite endpoint. After adjustment for confounders, only no BNP decrease at discharge was significantly associated with mortality but not the composite endpoint (p = 0.006 and p = 0.062, respectively). In conclusion, earlier time to decongestion but not the time to diuretics was associated with better biomarker trajectories. Residual congestion at discharge rather than the timing of decongestion predicted a worse prognosis.

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ePub ahead of print