Title

Effects of Compliance With the Early Management Bundle (SEP-1) on Mortality Changes Among Medicare Beneficiaries With Sepsis: A Propensity Score Matched Cohort Study

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

8-6-2021

Publication Title

Chest

Abstract

BACKGROUND: US hospitals have reported compliance with the SEP-1 quality measure to Medicare since 2015. Finding an association between compliance and outcomes is essential to gauge measure effectiveness.

RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the association between compliance with SEP-1 and 30-day mortality among Medicare beneficiaries?

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Studying patient-level data reported to Medicare by 3,241 hospitals from October 1, 2015, to March 31, 2017, we used propensity score matching and a hierarchical general linear model (HGLM) to estimate the treatment effects associated with compliance with SEP-1. Compliance was defined as completion of all qualifying SEP-1 elements including lactate measurements, blood culture collection, broad-spectrum antibiotic administration, 30 mL/kg crystalloid fluid administration, application of vasopressors, and patient reassessment. The primary outcome was a change in 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included changes in length of stay.

RESULTS: We completed two matches to evaluate population-level treatment effects. In standard match, 122,870 patients whose care was compliant were matched with the same number whose care was noncompliant. Compliance was associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (21.81% vs 27.48%, respectively), yielding an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 5.67% (95% CI, 5.33-6.00; P < .001). In stringent match, 107,016 patients whose care was compliant were matched with the same number whose care was noncompliant. Compliance was associated with a reduction in 30-day mortality (22.22% vs 26.28%, respectively), yielding an ARR of 4.06% (95% CI, 3.70-4.41; P < .001). At the subject level, our HGLM found compliance associated with lower 30-day risk-adjusted mortality (adjusted conditional OR, 0.829; 95% CI, 0.812-0.846; P < .001). Multiple elements correlated with lower mortality. Median length of stay was shorter among cases whose care was compliant (5 vs 6 days; interquartile range, 3-9 vs 4-10, respectively; P < .001).

INTERPRETATION: Compliance with SEP-1 was associated with lower 30-day mortality. Rendering SEP-1 compliant care may reduce the incidence of avoidable deaths.

PubMed ID

34364867

ePublication

ePub ahead of print

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