Khatri SB, Newman C, Hammel JP, Dey T, Van Laere JJ, Ross KA, Rose JA, Anderson T, Mukerjee S, Smith L, Landis MS, Holstein A, and Norris GA. Associations of Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma in Cleveland, Ohio. ScientificWorldJournal 2021; 2021:8881390.
The Scientific World Journal
Air pollution has been associated with poor health outcomes and continues to be a risk factor for respiratory health in children. While higher particulate matter (PM) levels are associated with increased frequency of symptoms, lower lung function, and increase airway inflammation from asthma, the precise composition of the particles that are more highly associated with poor health outcomes or healthcare utilization are not fully elucidated. PM is measured quantifiably by current air pollution monitoring systems. To better determine sources of PM and speciation of such sources, a particulate matter (PM) source apportionment study, the Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS), was conducted in Cleveland, Ohio, in 2009–2010, which allowed more refined assessment of associations with health outcomes. This article presents an evaluation of short-term (daily) and long-term associations between motor vehicle and industrial air pollution components and pediatric asthma emergency department (ED) visits by evaluating two sets of air quality data with healthcare utilization for pediatric asthma. Exposure estimates were developed using land use regression models for long-term exposures for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and coarse (i.e., with aerodynamic diameters between 2.5 and 10 μm) particulate matter (PM) and the US EPA Positive Matrix Factorization receptor model for short-term exposures to fine (μm) and coarse PM components. Exposure metrics from these two approaches were used in asthma ED visit prevalence and time series analyses to investigate seasonal-averaged short- and long-term impacts of both motor vehicles and industry emissions. Increased pediatric asthma ED visits were found for LUR coarse PM and NO2 estimates, which were primarily contributed by motor vehicles. Consistent, statistically significant associations with pediatric asthma visits were observed, with short-term exposures to components of fine and coarse iron PM associated with steel production. Our study is the first to combine spatial and time series analysis of ED visits for asthma using the same periods and shows that PM related to motor vehicle emissions and iron/steel production are associated with increased pediatric asthma visits.