The Effect of Goal-Directed Therapy on Patient Morbidity and Mortality After Traumatic Brain Injury, Results From the Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury III Clinical Trial.
Critical care medicine
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of goal-directed therapy on outcome after traumatic brain injury, our team applied goal-directed therapy to standardize care in patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, who were enrolled in a large multicenter clinical trial.
DESIGN: Planned secondary analysis of data from Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury III, a large, prospective, multicenter clinical trial.
SETTING: Forty-two trauma centers within the Neurologic Emergencies Treatment Trials network.
PATIENTS: Eight-hundred eighty-two patients were enrolled within 4 hours of injury after nonpenetrating traumatic brain injury characterized by Glasgow Coma Scale score of 4-12.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Physiologic goals were defined a priori in order to standardize care across 42 sites participating in Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury III. Physiologic data collection occurred hourly; laboratory data were collected according to local ICU protocols and at a minimum of once per day. Physiologic transgressions were predefined as substantial deviations from the normal range of goal-directed therapy. Each hour where goal-directed therapy was not achieved was classified as a "transgression." Data were adjudicated electronically and via expert review. Six-month outcomes included mortality and the stratified dichotomy of the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. For each variable, the association between outcome and either 1) the occurrence of a transgression or 2) the proportion of time spent in transgression was estimated via logistic regression model.
RESULTS: For the 882 patients enrolled in Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury III, mortality was 12.5%. Prolonged time spent in transgression was associated with increased mortality in the full cohort for hemoglobin less than 8 gm/dL (p = 0.0006), international normalized ratio greater than 1.4 (p < 0.0001), glucose greater than 180 mg/dL (p = 0.0003), and systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg (p < 0.0001). In the patient subgroup with intracranial pressure monitoring, prolonged time spent in transgression was associated with increased mortality for intracranial pressure greater than or equal to 20 mm Hg (p < 0.0001), glucose greater than 180 mg/dL (p = 0.0293), hemoglobin less than 8 gm/dL (p = 0.0220), or systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg (p = 0.0114). Covariates inversely related to mortality included: a single occurrence of mean arterial pressure less than 65 mm Hg (p = 0.0051) or systolic blood pressure greater than 180 mm Hg (p = 0.0002).
CONCLUSIONS: The Progesterone for the Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury III clinical trial rigorously monitored compliance with goal-directed therapy after traumatic brain injury. Multiple significant associations between physiologic transgressions, morbidity, and mortality were observed. These data suggest that effective goal-directed therapy in traumatic brain injury may provide an opportunity to improve patient outcomes.
ePub ahead of print