Characterization of primary hyperparathyroidism based on target organ involvement: An analysis from the Indian PHPT registry

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Clinical endocrinology


BACKGROUND: It has been a matter of debate for long time about the existence of two distinct phenotypes of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) predisposed to either renal or skeletal manifestation.

OBJECTIVE: To differentiate characteristics of symptomatic PHPT patients based on the presence of skeletal or renal involvement.

DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of data from the Indian PHPT registry.

PATIENTS: PHPT patients were divided into four discrete groups: asymptomatic, presenting with renal manifestations alone, skeletal manifestations alone, and both skeletal and renal manifestations.

MEASUREMENTS: Clinical, biochemical, and tumour weight and histopathological characteristics of these groups were compared.

RESULTS: Of the 229 eligible patients, 45 were asymptomatic, 62 had renal manifestations, 55 had skeletal manifestations, and 67 had both skeletal and renal manifestations. Patients with both skeletal and renal manifestations had higher serum calcium levels than those with isolated skeletal involvement [12.5 (11.1-13.7) mg/dL, 11.2 (10.6-12.3) mg/dL, respectively; p < .05]. Serum alkaline phosphatase (AP), plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, and parathyroid tumour weight were significantly higher in patients with isolated skeletal, and both skeletal and renal manifestations, compared to the other two groups. A preoperative PTH and AP level of 300 pg/mL and 152 U/L, predicted the risk of developing skeletal involvement with sensitivity and specificity of 71%, 70%, and 69%, 67%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: We observed distinct skeletal and renal phenotypic subgroups among PHPT patients with characteristic biochemical and hormonal patterns with higher parathyroid disease burden in patients with skeletal complications compared to those with isolated renal manifestation.

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ePub ahead of print