Bone histomorphometry in the evaluation of osteomalacia.
Bhan A, Qiu S, and Rao SD. Bone histomorphometry in the evaluation of osteomalacia Bone Rep 2018; 8:125-134.
With the widespread use of measurement of bone mineral density to detect, diagnose, and monitor therapy in the management of osteoporosis, bone histomorphometry has largely been relegated to research settings and academic pursuits. However, bone density measurement cannot distinguish between osteoporosis and other metabolic bone disorders such as different types of osteomalacia, osteitis fibrosa, renal osteodystrophy, hypophosphatasia, and Paget's disease of bone. Furthermore, bone density test cannot tell us anything about microarchitecture of bone, tissue level dynamics, bone cellular activity, bone mineralization and bone remodeling, understanding of which is essential to make a specific diagnosis of a suspected metabolic bone disease, to evaluate beneficial (or adverse) effects of various therapies, treatment (medical or surgical) decisions in hyperparathyroid states. As a research tool, bone histomorphometry contributed immensely to our understanding of bone biology, revolutionized the study of the mechanism of actions of various therapies, and provided crucial understanding of the adverse effects of drugs.