Pituitary Dysfunction Among Men Presenting with Hypogonadism.
Levy S, Arguello M, Macki M, and Rao SD. Pituitary Dysfunction Among Men Presenting with Hypogonadism. Curr Urol Rep 2019; 20(11):78.
Current urology reports
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypogonadism is a common endocrine dysfunction. This review focuses on the most up-to-date guideline for evaluation of pituitary function among men presenting with signs and symptoms of hypogonadism.
RECENT FINDINGS: The clinician must differentiate between primary (testicular) and secondary (pituitary-hypothalamic or central) hypogonadisms and be aware of adult-onset hypogonadism. If gonadotropins are low or inappropriately normal, the clinician must consider potential reversible causes in the hypothalamus-pituitary axis. Also, it is critical to understand the pitfalls of testosterone testing. When clinically indicated, evaluation of other pituitary hormone functions as well as pituitary magnetic resonance imaging may be necessary. Furthermore, it is essential to recognize that pituitary incidentalomas are common. Patients with microprolactinoma are more likely to present with symptoms of sexual dysfunction while those with macroprolactinoma are more likely to present with symptoms of mass effect. Some functional pituitary tumors respond to drug therapy while other nonfunctional tumors require surgical intervention. It is important for the clinician to understand the proper work-up of the hypogonadal patient with pituitary dysfunction and when necessary to refer to an endocrinologist or a neurosurgeon.