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Clinical infectious diseases


IMPORTANCE: Infections are important complications of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with few studies having investigated oral antibiotic use. Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing can contribute to multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and Clostridioides difficile (CDI) infections seen in ESRD. This study investigates antibiotic prescribing practices in ESRD across New York State (NYS).

METHODS: Retrospective case-control study from 2016 to 2017 of NYS ESRD and non-ESRD patients analyzing Medicare part B billing codes, 7 days before and 3 days after part D claims. Frequencies of each infection, each antibiotic, dosages, and the antibiotics associated with infections were assessed using chi-square analysis. A NYS small dialysis organization comprising approximately 2200 patients was also analyzed. Outcomes measured were the frequencies of infections and of each antibiotic prescribed. Incidence measures included antibiotics/1000 and individuals receiving antibiotics/1000.

RESULTS: 48,100 infections were treated in 35,369 ESRD patients and 2,544,443 infections treated in 3,777,314 non-ESRD patients. ESRD patients were younger, male, and African American. ESRD and non-ESRD patients receiving antibiotics was 520.29/1000 and 296.48/1000, respectively (p<0.05). The prescription incidence was 1359.95/1000 ESRD vs 673.61/1000 non-ESRD patients. In 36%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole dosage was elevated by current ESRD guidelines. Top infectious categories included non-specific symptoms, skin, and respiratory for ESRD; and respiratory, nonspecific symptoms, and genitourinary in non-ESRD.

CONCLUSIONS: This study Identifies issues with appropriate antibiotic usage stressing the importance of antibiotic education to nephrologist and non-nephrologist providers. It provides support for outpatient antibiotic stewardship programs.

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ePub ahead of print



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