Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis (Little League Shoulder)
Casadei K, and Kiel J. "Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis (Little League Shoulder)". StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL), StatPearls Publishing LLC. 2020.
Proximal humeral epiphysiolysis (Little League shoulder) is a shear or stress injury of the epiphyseal cartilage of the proximal humerus. Little League shoulder has also been referred to as osteochondrosis of the proximal humeral epiphysis and rotation stress fracture of the proximal humeral epiphyseal plate. Little League shoulder occurs exclusively in athletes whose physis remains open, prior to closure of the growth plate, and it classically affects youth baseball pitchers. Since growth plate closure occurs between 18 and 21 years old, injuries can theoretically occur until that age. However, the typical age at presentation is between 11 and 16 years old. Although it is typically described in youth baseball players and throwing athletes, there have also been cases reported in competitive gymnasts and tennis players.