Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

BMJ Open Gastroenterol


OBJECTIVE: The range of normal serum alkaline phosphatase is not well defined. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2009 to 2016 to generate normal ranges for a racially diverse sample of healthy adults.

METHODS: Respondents 18 years or older were included. Conditions known to elevate alkaline phosphatase were cause for exclusion. Alkaline phosphatase was measured using a colorimetric method based on standardised National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey protocols. Because alkaline phosphatase values were not normally distributed, log transformation was used. We calculated upper limits of normal (97.5 percentile), stratified by sex and race/ethnicity, and 90% CIs for the upper limits of normal.

RESULTS: 1199 respondents (673 female, 526 male) had body mass index from 18.5 to less than 25. Upper limits of normal were highest among Hispanics (123.2 IU/L (90% CI 110.2 to 136.7) for females; 123.8 IU/L (90% CI 112.0 to 135.1) for males), followed by African Americans (109.9 IU/L (90% CI 97.3 to 122.4) for females; 116.3 IU/L (90% CI 105.0 to 126.1) for males) and whites (97.1 IU/L (90% CI 91.0 to 103.4) for females; 109.6 IU/L (90% CI 102.1 to 116.3) for males). Asian American/Pacific Islander respondents had the lowest results: 93.8 IU/L (90% CI 88.2 to 99.5) for females and 95.3 IU/L (90% CI 88.1 to 102.1) for males.

CONCLUSIONS: The upper limit of normal alkaline phosphatase varies by race/ethnicity in a large US sample with body mass index of 18.5<25.

PubMed ID








To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.